Supporting your COVID-19 research with antibodies at discounted prices

Living with the existence of COVID-19 seems to have become the new normality, while the search for cures continues on with the focus on targeting the cytokine storm caused by the viral infection. At Anogen, we would like to support your research on COVID-19 by offering combinations of monoclonal antibodies of your choice with great discounts.

Read our selection of the most exciting research papers published this year.

An inflammatory cytokine signature predicts COVID-19 severity and survival

The researchers from Mount Sinai found that in severe COVID-19 cases, two cytokine levels were high; the IL-6 and TNF-α . Furthermore, those with higher levels of the two cytokines were twofold more likely to die.

Based on these results, the scientists recommend monitoring the levels of these two cytokines as their levels in the blood can determine the prognosis of COVID-19 or how severe the case may be. Moreover, they also suggested that drugs that target either one of these cytokines or both should be tested as they may be beneficial.

Research Target: IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8.

Read the full article in Nature, August 2020.

Serum Amyloid A is a biomarker of severe Coronavirus Disease and poor prognosis

This study studied the significance of serum amyloid A (SAA) in predicting the severity and prognosis of coronavirus disease and determined that the levels of SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated while levels of lymphocytes were low.

COVID-19 patients with decreasing levels of SAA had better disease outcomes than those with higher levels of SAA. The researchers believe that evaluating the levels of SAA and lymphocyte is valuable in predicting COVID-19 severity and prognosis. Moreover, conducting research on the SAA protein can provide insight into possible treatment options.

Research Target: SAA, CRP

Read the full article inScienceDirect, June 2020.

Severe immunosuppression and not a cytokine storm characterizes COVID-19 infections

This study tests two different hypotheses to determine whether the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 come from the suppression of the immune system or a cytokine storm. The researchers conducted an ELISpot functional immunoassay and determined the levels of IFN-ɣ and TFN-α in T-cells. They found that T-cell levels were low in those with COVID-19 and they also produced lower levels of IFN-ɣ and TFN-α.

They also found that in 25% of COVID-19 patients, the IL-6 levels were high but none of the other inflammatory protein levels were high. Overall these results suggested that COVID-19 suppressed the adaptive and innate immune system.

Research Target: IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α

Read the full article inJCI insight, July 2020.

Serum Cytokine and Chemokine Profile in Relation to the Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

This study detected the serum levels of 48 cytokines and chemokines in a cohort of COVID-19 patients including asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe cases.

The researchers found the serum IL-7, IL-10, and IP-10 levels were significantly higher in asymptomatic cases, the moderate cases had higher serum concentrations of IL-18, IP-10, and M-CSF, and the severe cases had higher serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, G-CSF, M-CSF, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIG, and MIP-1α.

The researchers believe that the cytokine and chemokine response patterns in different stages of the progress of COVID-19 could serve as biomarkers to evaluate the disease severity and outcome of COVID-19 patients. They also suggest that IP-10, IL-10, and IL-7 have significant diagnostic value as analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve.

Research Target: GM-CSF, MCP-1 M-CSF

Read the full article inOXFORD ACADEMIC, June 2020.

Profiling serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients reveals IL-6 and IL-10 are disease severity predictors

This study analyzed inflammatory cytokines and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) profiles of serum samples and found compared with control individuals, COVID-19 patients have higher serum levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and CRP. Furthermore, within COVID-19 patients, serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels are significantly higher in critical cases than in moderate and severe cases.

The researchers suggest IL-6 and IL-10 can be used as predictors for fast diagnosis of patients with higher risks of disease deterioration.

Research Target: IL-10, IL-6,

Read the full article inResearchGate, January 2020.

COVID-19 cytokines and the hyperactive immune response: Synergism of TNF-α and IFN-γ in triggering inflammation, tissue damage, and death

This study observed multiple inflammatory cytokines produced by innate immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection and found that the combined production of TNF-α and IFN-γ specifically induced inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, characterized by gasdermin–mediated pyroptosis, caspase-8–mediated apoptosis, and MLKL–mediated necroptosis.

The researchers reveal that blocking the COVID-19 cytokine-mediated inflammatory cell death signalling pathway identified in this study may benefit patients with COVID-19 or other cytokine storm-driven syndromes by limiting inflammation and tissue damage.

Research Target: TNF-α, IFN-γ,

Read the full article inScienceNews, October2020.

Choose any clone in any size from the below targets:

Matched pairs of IL-8, GM-CSF, MCP-1, TNF-α, SAA, CRP

Monoclonal antibodies of IL-6, IL-10, and M-CSF

5 clones -- 30% off

8 clones -- 35% off

10+ clones -- 40% off

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Cytokine Storm

Cytokines are an integral part of the body’s immune system, but they also trigger adverse host responses such as fever, pain, and inflammation. “Cytokine storm” is a situation that the immune system produces excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines, locally or systemically, in response to a number of infectious and non-infectious stimulants, or physical and chemical damages. The high rate of patient death during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1, and Ebola virus infection is a typical example of cytokine storm’s ferocity to negatively affect body functions. Currently, no antibiotics or antiviral drugs are able to stop the cytokine storm once it breaks out. At Anogen, we believe that tackling the harmful cytokine storm is a novel strategy of bio-defense.

We have initiated cytokine research since the 1990s and have developed hundreds of hybridomas that produce high specificity and high affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against many important cytokines, including TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, IL-18, and TGF- β. In addition, three different ELISA kits for detection of multiple cytokine epitopes have been developed and widely applied to biomedical research.

Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Inflammatory)

Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (M1/M2/MDSC Cytokines)

Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Th1/Th2/Th17)

Diseases with over production of cytokines:

In 2004, we developed humanized chimeric mAbs against chemokines IL-8 (CXCL8) and MCP-1 (CCL2) with specific neutralizing activity and gained multiple patents in the U.S, Europe, Canada, and China. The preclinical study of prevention and treatment of ARDS using a chimeric anti IL-8 Ab in the pre-clinical study were published on International Immunopharmacology: Humanized monoclonal antibody against the chemokine CXCL-8 (IL-8) effectively prevents acute lung injury.

We are currently developing diagnostic kits for clinical use to measure cytokine in patients. Combination of antibodies enable patient to receive individualized treatment according to specific cytokines involved.

ABCREAM: Anogen’s solution to psoriasis

IL-8 is a potent chemokine for neutrophils, growth factor of epidermal cells, and a pro-angiogenic factor. Psoriasis is a common skin disease characterized by scales that are built up with rapid growing keratinocytes accompanied by inflammation and redness around the scales. IL-8 levels elevate up to 150-fold in psoriatic tissue, suggesting its role in the pathogenesis.

Anogen-Yes Biotech is the first company utilizing anti IL-8 Ab to treat psoriasis. Our proprietary technology (ABCREAM) is a topical ointment containing IL-8 neutralization Ab. IL-8 neutralization Ab blocks the activity of IL-8 which mediates the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, and increases neutrolphil infiltration in the lesion vicinity to exert the anti-inflammatory effect. The ointment was found to be effective during clinical trial. 49% to 53.8% of patients achieved a greater than 60% improvement and 12.9% to 15.3% of patients achieved a greater than 90% improvement in PASI scores after a six week treatment cycle with ABCream.

ABCream may be effective in treatment of other inflammatory skin conditions as well. Preliminary observations suggest that it may also be used for treatment of eczema, a common skin condition. It was awarded Class I New Drug Certificate issued by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) in 2001.

HFMD and IL-8

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a potentially life-threatening illness commmonly seen in children mostly younger than five years of age. HFMD associated with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), members of the Picornaviridae family in the genus Enterovirus. Although present globally in most countries including Europe and North America, the largest HFMD outbreaks has been seen in the Asia-Pacific area, for unknown reasons. HFMD outbreaks are not only increased in recent years, but more severe cases are also more common. Even worse, the HFMD virus is likely to develop partial variations. The fatality rate of severe HFMD is higher.

Hyperglycemia, Pre-albumin and leukocytosis are currently used for clinical prediction of the severity of HFMD. However, they are both insensitive and nonspecific in HFMD patients.

It has been proved that cytokines and chemokines released by EV71 or CV-A6 infected immune cells contribute to the disease severity. The uncontrolled immune responses result in abnormally elevated expression of cytokines that cause inflammation, tissue damage, pulmonary edema and other pathological damage. This phenomenon is known as "Cytokine Storm".

It has been proved that cytokines and chemokines released by EV71 or CV-A6 infected immune cells contribute to the disease severity. The uncontrolled immune responses result in abnormally elevated expression of cytokines that cause inflammation, tissue damage, pulmonary edema and other pathological damage. This phenomenon is known as "Cytokine Storm".

The latest research showed that among many cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α increase in enterovirus infection. IL-8 is strongly associated with the severity of HFMD with massive neutrophil infiltration of tissue and organ. IL-6 and IL-10, although elevated in HFMD patients, are not related to the disease severity. Thus, IL-8 level could be used as a predictive marker in the early stages of severe enterovirus infection. In addition, humanized anti-IL-8 antibody may prevent fatal complications such as brainstem encephalitis (BE), and pulmonary edema (PE) to reduce the mortality of severe HFMD.

Our project is to develop a new medical device of multiplex cytokine immuno-assay (ELISA) for early prediction of severe HFMD and an effective therapeutic humanized antibody against IL-8.

Anogen's IL-8 products in other studies:

1. Christopher J. Justinich et al. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on human esophagus and evidence of expression of the CaSR on the esophageal epithelial cell line (HET-1A). American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology Published 1 January 2008Vol. 294no. G120-G129.

2. Ping YF, Yao XH et al. The anti-cancer compound Nordy inhibits CXCR4-mediated production of IL-8 and VEGF by malignant human glioma cells. J Neurooncol. 2007 Aug;84(1):21-9.

3. Yao XH, Ping YF et al. Production of angiogenic factors by human glioblastoma cells following activation of the G-protein coupled formylpeptide receptor FPR. J Neurooncol. 2008 Jan;86(1):47-53.

4. Padron E, Painter JS, Kunigal S, Mailloux AW, McGraw K, McDaniel JM, Kim E, Bebbington C, Baer M, Yarranton G, Lancet J, Komrokji RS, Abdel-Wahab O, List AF, Epling-Burnette PK.GM-CSF-dependent pSTAT5 sensitivity is a feature with therapeutic potential in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 2013; 25(121):5068-77.

5. Arismendi E, Rivas E, Vidal J, Barreiro E, Torralba Y, Burgos F, Rodriguez-Roisin R. Airway Hyperresponsiveness to Mannitol in Obesity Before and After Bariatric Surgery. Obes Surg 2015; 9(25):1666-71.

6. Ye BG, Sun HC, Zhu XD, Chai ZT, Zhang YY, Ao JY, Cai H, Ma DN, Wang CH, Qin CD, Gao DM, Tang ZY.Reduced expression of CD109 in tumor-associated endothelial cells promotes tumor progression by paracrine interleukin-8 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget 2016; 20(7):29333-45.

7. Guo Y, Shi G, Wan H, Zhou M.Hedgehog signaling regulates the expression levels of inflammatory mediators in cigarette‑induced airway inflammation. Mol Med Rep 2018; 6(17):8557-8563.

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