Synergistic effects of immunoregulation and osteoinduction of ds-block elements on titanium surface
Biomaterials are those materials that interact with biological systems, often used in medical applications to augment or replace a natural function. Biomaterials could be natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless, and usually made of multiple components. All biomaterials when implanted into the body trigger an immune response, so, when evaluating biomaterial, it is necessary to consider the effects of implants on immune cells.
The elements with (n-1) d10ns1−2 valence electronic structures are called ds-block elements, which have excellent biological properties, such as antibiosis, osteogenesis, etc. Thus, they are widely used in biomaterial fields, especially in the orthopedic implants field.
A new study published on Bioactive Materials in 2021 investigated the rule of ds-block elements in the immune response and the involved mechanisms by introducing the three most widely used ds-block elements, copper, zinc, and silver on titanium substrate.
Results of this study showed that comparing with the titanium sample, the implanted samples could up-regulate the anti-inflammation and down-regulate the inflammation. The trend of anti-inflammatory effects of macrophages was in correlation with the number of valence electrons of ds-block elements. The co-culture experiments of macrophages and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells showed that these two kinds of cells could enhance the anti-inflammation and osteogenesis of samples by the paracrine manner of PGE2. Moreover, molecular biology experiments indicate that the PGE2-related signaling pathway may contribute to the anti-inflammatory response and osteogenic differentiation.
This research provides a new sight into the selection of the ds-block elements in the design of the biomaterial surface.
Anogen’s human IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α ELISA kits were used in this research to conduct an immunological evaluation in vitro study. Anogen provides hundreds of high-quality antibodies and ELISA to support researches in life science and medical science,
For more information, please visit Anogen website: https://www.anogen.ca
Chen L, Wang D, Qiu J, Zhang X, Liu X, Qiao Y, Liu X. Synergistic effects of immunoregulation and osteoinduction of ds-block elements on titanium surface. Bioact Mater. 2020 Aug 14;6(1):191-207. doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.08.001. PMID: 32913928; PMCID: PMC7452063.
A research team from Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, published a novel study about the role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in human bladder cancer.
This team used immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments to compare the expression of protein and mRNA levels of IDO1 in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines to the noncancerous counterparts. The results show that IDO1 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of IDO1 was significantly correlated with tumor size, T stage, and N stage but not with other clinicopathological features, including age, gender, smoking history, etc. The result also indicates that knockdown of IDO1 inhibited EMT through the IL-6/STAT3/PD-L1 signaling pathway.
This study suggests the potential of inhibitors of IDO1 as a new therapy for human bladder cancer in the future.
Anogen’s human IL-6 ELISA kit was used in this article to measure the concentration of IL-6 in cell supernatant. There are a number of publications (that) studied the role of IL-6/STAT3/PD-L1 pathway in the development and progression of human cancers. Anogen is willing to support researches in IL-6/STAT3/PD-L1 pathway by providing high-quality IL-6 and PD-L1 ELISA Kits as well as antibodies.
For more information, please visit Anogen website: https://www.anogen.ca
Wentao Zhang, Junfeng Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Yadong Guo, Yuan Wu, Ruiliang Wang, Longsheng Wang, Shiyu Mao, Xudong Yao,
Overexpression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Activation of the IL-6/STAT3/PD-L1 Pathway in Bladder Cancer, Translational Oncology, Volume 12, Issue 3, 2019, Pages 485-492, ISSN 1936-5233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2018.11.012.
A research paper published in the International Journal of Biological Sciences in 2019 introduced a novel combination of Nitroxoline and PD-1 blockade to treat prostate cancer.
A murine prostate cancer orthotopic model was used for this study. The authors compared a combination therapy involving nitroxoline and PD-1 blockade with nitroxoline or PD-1 blockade alone. The research showed the combination therapy generated better results in suppressed tumor growth, reductions in tumor weight, bioluminescence tumor signals, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels.
By using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, the authors found this combination therapy increased CD44+CD62L+CD8+ memory T cell numbers and reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell numbers in peripheral blood, thus, the antitumor immunity significantly enhanced.
This research suggests that the nitroxoline and PD-1 blockade combination could be a promising treatment for prostate cancer.
Anogen’s human PSA ELISA kit was used to measure serum PSA levels in this study. This Human PSA Kit ELISA Kit is to be used for the in vitro quantitative determination of human PSA concentrations in serum and cell culture samples. PSA serum levels are elevated in patients with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and inflammatory conditions associated with the tissue, so, it has been chosen as serum marker for prostate cancer screening for males over 50 years older. The authors found that the mean serum PSA level was lower in the nitroxoline plus PD-1 blockade group than in the control, nitroxoline, and PD-1 blockade groups (P < 0.05).
Figure 5. (G) Serum prostate-specific antigen levels were significantly lower in the nitroxoline plus PD-1 blockade group than in the control, nitroxoline, and PD-1 blockade groups. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (N = 4, *P < 0.05).
Anogen also provides high-quality monoclonal antibodies and ELISA Kits in tumor research areas, such as PD-1, PD-L1, PSA, CEA, and AFP etc.
For more information, please visit Anogen’s website: https://www.anogen.ca
Xu, N., Huang, L., Li, X., Watanabe, M., Li, C., Xu, A., Liu, C., Li, Q., Araki, M., Wada, K., Nasu, Y., & Huang, P. (2019). The Novel Combination of Nitroxoline and PD-1 Blockade, Exerts a Potent Antitumor Effect in a Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer. International journal of biological sciences, 15(5), 919–928. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.32259
Although aging a normal part of life, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not. Many individuals after the age of 65 or even before are diagnosed with AD. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that slowly destroys many abilities of the brain such as memory, thinking and even behaviours. While there are many treatments available for Alzheimer’s disease, there is no cure and the search for possible treatments, underlying mechanisms and pathology continue to be researched. Here, at Anogen, we would like to support your research on Alzheimer’s disease by offering a discount on possible treatment combos. Read our selection of exciting and new publications from 2020-2021 regarding Alzheimer’s disease.
Diagnostic Utility of Selected Serum Dementia Biomarkers: Amyloid β-40, Amyloid β-42, Tau Protein, and YKL-40: A Review
In this review paper, the authors examined several papers on the biomarker concentrations of amyloid β-40, amyloid β-42, tau protein and YKL-40. They examined several cross-sectional studies. The authors found that the results between the cognitive disorders group and control group for the amyloid β-40 and amyloid β-42 groups were incoherent. However, they found that in the patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there was increased tau protein concentration. They also found that increased YKL-40 concentration was significant in those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment which can progress to AD. The authors also found that the ratio of t-tau/Aβ-42 was also a significant biomarker in those with cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Thus, monitoring the levels of tau protein, YKL-40 or the ratio of tau/Aβ-42 may prove to be beneficial in diagnosing cognitive disorders and treating them via drugs.
Target Research Combo: amyloid B-42, tau, YKL-40
Read full article here: Pubmed, October 2020
A peripheral neutrophil-related inflammatory factor predicts a decline in executive function in mild Alzheimer’s disease
There is a suggested role of neutrophils and inflammatory proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, the authors investigate the role of these neutrophils and several inflammatory proteins in Alzheimer’s disease. The inflammatory proteins they tested include, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-8 (IL-8), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1B) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
The authors found that all of these proteins combined created an inflammatory factor and it predicted the decline in executive function of patients with Alzheimer’s disease over the span of a year. In other words, these proteins are important biomarkers of AD and may be useful in predicting certain symptoms of the disease.
Target Research Combo: IL-8, TNF
Read full article here: Pubmed, March 2020
YKL-40 and neuron-specific enolase in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involve degeneration and inflammation of neurons. Although the processes and biomarkers underlying these processes are not fully understood. In this review paper, the authors highlight YKL-40 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) as playing a significant role in the monitoring and prognosis of many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease.
The authors discovered that the increased levels of YKL-40 are related to the progression of the pathology. Reduced levels of NSE are correlated to low metabolic activity and increased death of neurons. Thus, both of these biomarkers give good insight into the prognosis and progression of AD.
Target Research Combo: YKL-40, NSE
Read full article here: Pubmed, July 2020
Relation between alpha‐synuclein and core CSF biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease
It is hypothesized that amyloid beta, tau protein and alpha synuclein are involved in Alzheimer’s disease and that these proteins all lead to the accumulation of one another. In this study, the authors did a follow-up of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and while some of them remained at this stage, others progressed to Alzheimer’s disease or another neurodegenerative disease. The authors measured for amyloid beta levels, tau protein and alpha synuclein (a-syn) with the human ELISA kits.
The authors found that the a-syn levels significantly correlated with tau protein in patients with AD. The tau proteins were significantly related to AD. Due to the exclusive correlation between a-syn and tau, the authors mention adding a-syn as a protein involved in the pathology of AD.
Target Research Combo: alpha synuclein, tau,
Read full article here: Alzheimer's association, December 2020
The emerging antibody markets
Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are antigen-specific targeting proteins. Due to their high specificity and selectivity, antibodies have always been used as outstanding tools for biomedical research and essential components of many diagnostics and therapeutics.
The global market for antibodies used in the research was estimated at about $2.3 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach $3.0 billion in 2022. Antibody-based drug discovery and development increased government and industry funding in new discoveries in “hot” research areas such as stem cell research, neuroscience, and cancer research, as well as other key drivers, will bring about an estimated annual growth rate of 4.8%.
Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has been growing rapidly. More than 80 monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or other countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The combined worldwide sales have increased from $50 billion to $106 billion in 7 years since 2011.
Anogen has been in the antibody industry for 30 years
Anogen Yes Biotech Laboratories Ltd., a Canadian biotech company located in the Greater Toronto Area, has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications for thirty years.
Anogen is a recognized leader worldwide in the biotech industry in the research & development of antibody-based products. Half of the top research antibody suppliers sell Anogen’s products. In the therapeutic antibody research field, Anogen has also been a reliable provider for many companies specialized in pharmaceutics and diagnostics.
Anogen has been ISO certified for 19 years to ensure that customers are provided with products and services of the highest quality.
Anogen has expanded the business to the Chinese market since 2006 and has invested in a number of promising antibody research projects by establishing new branches.
Anogen has a professional team and well-developed antibody research and manufacturing technology platform. All key members hold at least a Master’s degree and one-third of them have a Doctor’s degree. The founder of Anogen, Dr. Ye, is one of the leaders in cancer immunotherapy. The CSO Dr. Wang and Dr. Xu had been working as senior scientists at NIH USA for decades and have published hundreds of papers in the immunology research field.
Anogen has developed antibody products for various applications
Anogen has developed a cell bank of more than 1000 hybridomas, which can be cultured in vitro indefinitely, allowing relatively easy purification of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies. Based on this cell bank, Anogen has marketed more than 300 research antibodies and 60 ELISA kits. More than ten new products are launched every year.
As a research-focused company, Anogen also developed antibody-based diagnostics and therapeutics, including ABCREAM, an effective topical formulation of anti-IL-8 (CXCL8) monoclonal antibody for psoriatic skin, and neonatal TSH ELISA Kit, a diagnostic product used for quantitative measurement of TSH, licensed by Health Canada.
Anogen has a long-term collaborative history with major clinical research institutions and universities across North America and Europe. Anogen has also started new projects to develop laboratory-developed tests (LDT) and personalized cancer treatment, which Anogen believes are creative and important pathways for antibodies for clinical use.
Anogen’s research focuses on three main fields:
- Cytokine Storm Therapy: Antibodies can bind and remove excessive inflammatory cytokines released during trauma, transplant rejection, and acute infection.
- Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Use an antibody to lower Aβ42 peptide levels in AD patients to improve cognitive deficits.
- Cancer Immunotherapy: Personalized treatment for various cancers.
There are nine projects in Anogen’s pipeline:
Anogen has developed dozens of mAbs with high specificity and selectivity that demonstrate great potential to be developed into novel antibody-based products as diagnostics and therapeutics
- mAbs against IL-8 and MCP-1for SARS/ARDS
- ABCREAM registration in the U.S and Europe market
- mAb against IL-17A for psoriasis treatment
- Skincare product using mAbs anti-IL-8 and TNF-α for allergic skin ailments
- Mabs against Aβ42 and Tau for AD prevention
- PD-1 and PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors for personalized cancer treatment
- Research on cytokines in the tumor microenvironment for cancer diagnosis and treatment
- CD47 for personalized cancer treatment
- Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in treating Helicobacter pylori infection
Anogen is a great opportunity to invest in the emerging antibody industry(Phase one of personalized diagnosis and treatment for cytokine storm)
THE EMERGING MATCHED ANTIBODY PAIRS MARKET
Monoclonal, polyclonal antibodies, and Matched Antibody Pairs are antigen-specific targeting proteins. Due to their high specificity and selectivity, antibodies have always been used as outstanding tools for biomedical research and essential components of many diagnostics and therapeutics.
Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has grown significantly. More than 80 monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or other countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The combined worldwide sales have increased from $50 billion to $106 billion in 7 years since 2011.
ANOGEN HAS BEEN IN THE MATCHED ANTIBODY PAIRS INDUSTRY FOR 30 YEARS, Toronto
Anogen Yes Biotech Laboratories Ltd., a Canadian biotech company located in Toronto, has been producing Matched Antibody Pairs products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications for thirty years.
Anogen is a recognized leader in the worldwide biotech industry in the research & development of antibody-based products. One-third of the top research antibody suppliers are our customers. In the therapeutic antibodies research field, Anogen has also been a reliable provider for many pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics.
To ensure that our customers are provided with the highest level of quality products and services, Anogen has been ISO-certified for 19 years.
Anogen has expanded the business to China market since 2006 and has invested in a lot of promising antibody research projects by establishing new branches.
Anogen has a professional team and well-developed antibody research and manufacturing technology platform. All the key members hold a Master's degree and one-third of them have a Doctor degree. The funder of Anogen, Dr. Ye is one of the leaders in tumor immunotherapy. our CSO Dr. Wang and Dr. Xu had been working as senior scientists in NIH for more than decades, and have published hundreds of papers in the Immunology research field.
ANOGEN HAS DEVELOPED PRODUCTS IN VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF ANTIBODIES
Anogen has developed a cell bank of more than 1000 hybridomas, which can be cultured in vitro indefinitely allowing the relatively easy purification of large quantities of monoclonal antibody. Based
on this cell bank, Anogen has developed and marketed more than 300 research antibodies and Elisa kits. More than ten new products are launched every year.
As a research-focus company, Anogen also developed antibody-based for diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed Abcream - an effective topical formulation of an anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibody for psoriatic skin, and neonatal TSH ELISA Kits, a diagnostic product used for the quantitative measurement of TSH, licensed by Health Canada.
Anogen has a long-term collaborative history with major clinical research institutions and universities across North America as well as Europe. We started a new project development LDT, which we believe is another important pathway for antibodies used in diagnostics.
Anogen is a leading manufacturer of antibodies, producing ELISA Kits and matched antibody pairs for over 30 years, Toronto
Matched Antibody Pair is a set of two antibodies used to detect and capture antibodies of a single protein antigen in immunoassay or the sandwich ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays).
Anogen offers a wide selection of antibodies
Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.
Primary Antibodies will be useful for the detection of biomarkers for diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and diabetes. Primary antibodies can be either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. A monoclonal antibody is produced from a single cell and is only able to recognize one epitope. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody is from a collection of cells that will recognize various epitopes on the same antigen.
Secondary Antibodies are used for detection when the primary antibody is unlabeled (immunolabeling). Secondary antibodies can be conjugated to enzymes, and offer increased sensitivity due to multiple binding to a single primary antibody.
Anogen has advanced cytokine research since the 1990s and developed more than 70 monoclonal antibodies directed against many important cytokines. Anogen has designed multiplex human cytokine ELISA kits for semi-quantitative and simultaneous determination of multiple cytokines and chemokines in physiological and pathological conditions
Anogen’s Matched Antibody Pairs
Anogen has been producing a wide range of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) kits for the detection of proteins, antibodies, and molecules or performing ligand-binding assays successfully. ELISA Kits are an accurate and convenient research tool, useful for detecting markers for infectious diseases, cytokines, diabetes and tumor, growth factors, drugs, and molecules, etc.
Anogen’s ELISA Kits